Hi, I am in the process of rewriting expresso's rule
engine. Currently, rules in expresso can be very expressive, but the rule engine was written in the first two weeks
of my gsoc project time on top of core.logic, so there are many efficiency issues with it. I did some research on how
the rule engines from other term rewriting engines are build (like maude, elan, stragego ...). Following a few references, I came to this paper, which presents an algorithm to match
an expression to multiple simultaneous patterns without backtracking in one pass over the expression, which is really cool
and the perfect basis for a good rule engine/compiler.
I implemented the algorithm in the paper and also build a rule compiler, that unrolls the automaton that is constructed into an
efficient clojure function. It is a literate program, you can find it here.
The rest of this post is the created html export from the literate org file.

## Table of Contents

## 1 Introduction

This is a clojure implementation of the algorithm from this paper.
The problem that this addresses is matching a term against multiple
patterns simultaneously,

To accomplish this, a directed acyclic graph representing a deterministic automaton is created from the pattern, with transitions labeled by the next symbol read during a left to right scan through the pattern and the currently matching patterns as nodes. The dag is kept minimal, that is there are no two states in the dag that produce the same matching sub-tree.

I extended the algorithm in the paper to also work when there is a wildcard on a function symbol like in the following pattern: '(? a b) and also to handle functions with multiple arities. This adds a few extra cases to the interpreter and the compiler, but in the case it isn't needed doesn't slow down the matching process.

Interpreting it works as expected - scan through the input expression, for each symbol follow the labeled transition if it exists - pick the default route if one exists in case that fails - fail otherwise - repeat until at failure state or the end of the expression is reached

The dag can also be compiled to an optimized clojure function resembling the decision tree that the dag represents. Basically, the function consists of a bunch of (case <location-in-expression> <symbol1> <forward-location-and-check-next-input> …. <default> <go-through-default-route-if-possible>) thus eliminating the need to search through the dag at matching time.

**without backtracking**scanning the expression only one time from left to right. The patterns are assumed to be linear, that is that there are no two variables with the same name in a pattern. Testing for equality has to be done as an additional check when the linear pattern matched.To accomplish this, a directed acyclic graph representing a deterministic automaton is created from the pattern, with transitions labeled by the next symbol read during a left to right scan through the pattern and the currently matching patterns as nodes. The dag is kept minimal, that is there are no two states in the dag that produce the same matching sub-tree.

I extended the algorithm in the paper to also work when there is a wildcard on a function symbol like in the following pattern: '(? a b) and also to handle functions with multiple arities. This adds a few extra cases to the interpreter and the compiler, but in the case it isn't needed doesn't slow down the matching process.

Interpreting it works as expected - scan through the input expression, for each symbol follow the labeled transition if it exists - pick the default route if one exists in case that fails - fail otherwise - repeat until at failure state or the end of the expression is reached

The dag can also be compiled to an optimized clojure function resembling the decision tree that the dag represents. Basically, the function consists of a bunch of (case <location-in-expression> <symbol1> <forward-location-and-check-next-input> …. <default> <go-through-default-route-if-possible>) thus eliminating the need to search through the dag at matching time.

### 1.1 Implementation

(ns optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core (:require [clojure.set :as set] [clojure.walk :as walk] [clojure.zip :as zip]))

(def omega '?)

#### 1.1.1 Representing patterns

Because we are concerned with scanning expressions from left to
right, the matching positions of the patterns can be totally
ordered - by how right they appear in the printed representation -
and put in a single list. Function symbols are represented as
[<function-symbol> <number-of-arguments>], so that the flat
representation retains all information about the original
structure of the pattern. For example, the pattern
'(f (g a b) a a b) can be represented as '([f 4] [g 2] a b a a b).
In this representation, a pattern is just a list of transition
labels that the automaton must perform in order to match an expression
against the pattern.
During the matching, there will always be a current state which is
all patterns with the same matching prefix, a current position
where the next symbol will be read, and a suffix to be matched for
the next symbols read. This is the definition of a matching-item.

The current state of the automaton is then a set of matching items
which share the same prefix.

(defn matching-item "A matching item is a triple r:a*b where ab is a term and r is a rule label. The label identifies the origin of the term ab and hence, in a term rewriting system, the rewrite rule which has to be applied when ab is matched * is called the matching dot, a the prefix and b the suffix. The first symbol of b is the matching symbol. The position of the matching dot is the matching position" [r a b] [r a b]) (defn matching-symbol [matching-item] (let [[r a b] matching-item] (first b))) (def infinity (Double/MAX_VALUE)) (defn final? [matching-item] (let [[r a b] matching-item] (empty? b))) (defn matching-position [matching-item] (if (final? matching-item) infinity (let [[r a b] matching-item] (inc (count a))))) (defn initial-matching-item [label pattern] [label '() pattern])

(defn matching-set? [matching-items] (let [[r a b] (first matching-items)] (every? #(let [[r2 a2 b2] %] (= r r2)) (rest matching-items)))) (defn initial-matching-set? [matching-items] (and (matching-set? matching-items) (= '() (second (first matching-items))))) (defn final-matching-set? [matching-items] (and (matching-set? matching-items) (= '() (nth (first matching-items) 2))))

#### 1.1.2 The Transition function for the automaton

After we know what the states and the transitions of the automaton
will be, we can start looking at the definition for the transition
function delta. For more explanation, see the paper itself.
Basically, from the current state - the current-matching-set - it
returns as next node the set of matching items which could be
forwarded by the symbol s - that is what the accept function does.
It also avoids backtracking by adding more states when there is an
ambiguity in the form that one pattern has a default next
transition and another has a transition that goes a level deeper
with a function symbol. If the function symbol transition would be
followed, it could be that it failed and one had to backtrack and
go through the omega transition.
Therefore, for each such situation a new pattern is added to the
matching set which consists of the omega rule but with the omega
replaced by the next function symbol and a number of omegas that
match the functions arity.
It is also important to do this

**closing over**the current matching set at the very beginning to handle the case of a default omega pattern. The paper fails to mention that.(defn forward-matching-position [matching-item] (let [[r a b] matching-item] [r (concat a [(first b)]) (rest b)])) (defn functions [matching-set] (into #{} (filter #(or (and (symbol? %) (not= omega %)) (and (sequential? %) (symbol? (first %)) (number? (second %)))) (map matching-symbol matching-set)))) (defn arity [function-symbol] (or (and (sequential? function-symbol) (second function-symbol)) 0)) (defn accept [matching-items s] (map forward-matching-position (filter #(= (matching-symbol %) s) matching-items))) (defn close [matching-items] (let [F (functions matching-items)] (set/union matching-items (for [matching-item matching-items function-symbol F :let [arityf (arity function-symbol)] :when (and (= omega (matching-symbol matching-item)))] (let [[r a b] matching-item] [r a (concat [function-symbol] (repeat arityf omega) (rest b))]))))) (defn delta [matching-items s] (close (accept matching-items s)))

#### 1.1.3 Creating the DAG

- Graph implementationHere is a very simple implementation of a functional graph data structure

;;quick and dirty functional graph implementation (def empty-graph {}) (defn add-node [g n] (if (g n) g (assoc g n {:next #{} :prev #{}}))) (defn add-edge [g n1 n2 l] (-> g (add-node n1) (add-node n2) (update-in [n1 :next] conj [n2 l]) (update-in [n2 :prev] conj [n1 l]))) (defn remove-edge [g n1 n2 l] (-> g (add-node n1) (add-node n2) (update-in [n1 :next] disj [n2 l]) (update-in [n2 :prev] disj [n1 l]))) (defn remove-node [g n] (if-let [{:keys [next prev]} (g n)] ((comp #(dissoc % n) #(reduce (fn [g* [n* l*]] (remove-edge g* n* n l*)) % prev) #(reduce (fn [g* [n* l*]] (remove-edge g* n n* l*)) % next)) g) g))

- Recognizing equivalent statesTo make the created automaton minimal, equivalent states have to be recognized during the construction phase. Two states are equivalent, if for each item in set1 there exists an equivalent item in set2. Two matching items are equivalent, if they have the same rule label and the same suffix.

(defn equivalent-matching-items? [matching-item1 matching-item2] (let [[r1 a1 b1] matching-item1 [r2 a2 b2] matching-item2] (and (= r1 r2) (= b1 b2)))) (defn extract-first-by "returns [extracted rest-of-collection] or false" [f coll] (loop [[c & cs] coll rest-coll []] (if c (if (f c) [c (concat rest-coll cs)] (recur cs (conj rest-coll c))) false))) (defn equivalent-matching-sets? [matching-set1 matching-set2] (loop [[mit & mits] matching-set1 matching-set2 matching-set2] (if mit (if-let [[mit2 mits2] (extract-first-by #(equivalent-matching-items? mit %) matching-set2)] (recur mits mits2) false) (empty? matching-set2))))

- Constructing the DAGFor detailed description about this algorithm, see the paper. Basically, we start with the initial-matching-set and create new states for all possible transitions, add the nodes and the edges to the graph, or only the transition if there already exists an equivalent state in the graph. Then sort the newly created states according to their matching position, so that states with only a few already matched items are handled first. The creation ends when the list of states is traversed completely.

(defn failure? [state] (or (= '() state) (nil? state))) (defn get-next-node [g n l] (some #(and (= (second %) l) (first %)) (get-in g [n :next]))) (defn search-equivalent-node [graph node] (first (for [[n v] graph :when (equivalent-matching-sets? node n)] n))) (defn insert-according-to-matching-position [nodes-to-visit new-matching-set] ;;nodes-to-visit has to be sorted according to matching-position ;;all matching positions in a matching set are the same (let [nmp (matching-position (first new-matching-set))] (loop [[n & ns :as nodes-left] nodes-to-visit new-nodes-to-visit []] (if n (if (<= (matching-position (first n)) nmp) (recur ns (conj new-nodes-to-visit n)) (vec (concat new-nodes-to-visit [new-matching-set] nodes-left))) (conj nodes-to-visit new-matching-set))))) ;;problem hier? gibt nur ein omega jetzt mehrere (defn create-new-states [pos nodes-to-visit graph] (let [current-state (nth nodes-to-visit pos) F (functions current-state)] (loop [[s & ss] (concat F [omega]) nodes-to-visit nodes-to-visit graph graph] (if s ;;work to do (let [new-matching-set (delta current-state s)] ;;check if there is already an equivalent matching-set in the graph (if-let [eq-node (search-equivalent-node graph new-matching-set)] (recur ss nodes-to-visit (add-edge graph current-state eq-node s)) (recur ss (insert-according-to-matching-position nodes-to-visit new-matching-set) (add-edge graph current-state new-matching-set s)))) ;;all symbols consumpted, so return the new state [graph nodes-to-visit])))) (defn create-dag [initial-matching-set] (loop [graph empty-graph nodes-to-visit [initial-matching-set] pos 0] (if (= (count nodes-to-visit) pos) ;;all nodes visited, so return graph (remove-node graph '()) (let [[new-graph new-nodes-to-visit] (create-new-states pos nodes-to-visit graph)] (recur new-graph new-nodes-to-visit (inc pos))))))

#### 1.1.4 Interpreting the DAG

With the constucted minimal dag like described in the paper, we
can leave it and now implement how to interpret that dag to match
an expression against multiple paterns.
To do this, we will traverse the expression from left to right
using clojure zippers. We recursively check for the next
transition, follow it and move the zipper forward accordingly and
fail if there is no transition possible. If we go through a
wildcard then we add the current value of the zipper location to
the bindings ;;TODO may miss some bindings in rules created by close

(defn consume-next [g current-state symbol] (let [next-state (get-next-node g current-state symbol)] (if (failure? next-state) ;;there was no link, so go through omega link [(get-next-node g current-state omega) [symbol]] [next-state []]))) (defn consume-next-level-down [g current-state [symbol count]] (let [next-state (get-next-node g current-state [symbol count])] (if (failure? next-state) ;;there was no link, so go through omega link [(get-next-node g current-state [omega count]) [symbol]] [next-state []]))) (defn- next-without-down [loc] (if (= :end (loc 1)) loc (or (zip/right loc) (loop [p loc] (if (zip/up p) (or (zip/right (zip/up p)) (recur (zip/up p))) [(zip/node p) :end]))))) (defn match-expression [g patterns expression] (loop [loc (zip/seq-zip expression) node patterns bindings []] (if (or (failure? node) (zip/end? loc)) ;;done [node bindings] (if (zip/branch? loc) ;;ok try if head symbol matches ;;we are using preorder throughout matching (let [children-count (dec (count (zip/children loc))) head-loc (zip/next loc) [next-node add-bindings] (consume-next-level-down g node [(first head-loc) children-count])] (if (failure? next-node) ;;head got no match so we have to stay at the original level and try ;;to match there for a value or omega (let [[next-node add-bindings] (consume-next g node (first loc))] (recur (next-without-down loc) next-node (concat bindings add-bindings))) ;;head location got a match so we go on on this level (recur (zip/next head-loc) next-node (concat bindings add-bindings)))) ;;we have no possibility to go down a level deeper so we can just ;;consume directly (let [[next-node add-bindings] (consume-next g node (first loc))] (recur (zip/next loc) next-node (concat bindings add-bindings)))))))

- TestingHere are a few sample calls and tests:

(use 'clojure.test) (let [initial-matching-set (close [(initial-matching-item 1 '([? 2] a b)) (initial-matching-item 2 '([? 1] a)) (initial-matching-item 3 '(?))]) dag (create-dag initial-matching-set)] (is (= '[([3 (?) ()]) (1)] (match-expression dag initial-matching-set 1))) (is (= '[([3 ([? 1] a) ()] [2 ([? 1] a) ()]) (+)] (match-expression dag initial-matching-set '(+ a)))) (is (= '[([3 ([? 2] a b) ()] [1 ([? 2] a b) ()]) (+)] (match-expression dag initial-matching-set '(+ a b)))) (is (= '[([3 (?) ()]) ((+ a b c))] (match-expression dag initial-matching-set '(+ a b c)))))

#### 1.1.5 Compiling the DAG to a fast clojure function

The expression matching can be taken a level further, to the point
that the dag can be compiled to a fast clojure function. The
resulting clojure function will look like this:

In the end-nodes of the decision tree the code returns either nil
for a failure node or sorts the applicable rules by priority
(currently only their label but one could introduce the rule that more
specific rules come first) and for each defines the bindings,
checks the conditions and returns their result.

Therefor, we now extend the notion of a pattern to the notion of a rule. Currently this is really low level and the rule engine on top if this should take a more human readable form.

A rule has the form [<label> <pattern> <conditions> <results> <wildcard-positions>] label and pattern are the same as before, conditions is just a list of expressions to evaluate after succesful match, result is the rhs of the rule and wildcard-positions maps the wildcards in the pattern to the positions in the expression.

With this the compile-rules function can be defined

(fn [expression] (let [loc (zip/seq-zip expression)] ;;now code for the single transitions (or ;;if there are possible transitions in the dag that lead one ;;level down - if now the next part is replaced by false ;;and the next branch of the or is taken (and (zip/branch? ~'loc) ;;fail if we are not in a branch (let [head-loc (zip/next loc)] (case (first head-loc) ;;fast dispatch on the function symbol <function-symbol> (and (check-if-argument-count-matches) <code-for-the-next-transitions>) #_ (...) ;;default case <code-for-wildcard-transition or nil if no wildcard>))) ;;if there is no matching transition for the current head symbol ;;try matching the whole current subtree (case (first loc) <variable-or-constant> <code-for-next-transition> #_ (...) <code-for-wildcard-transition or nil if there is no wildcard>))))

Therefor, we now extend the notion of a pattern to the notion of a rule. Currently this is really low level and the rule engine on top if this should take a more human readable form.

A rule has the form [<label> <pattern> <conditions> <results> <wildcard-positions>] label and pattern are the same as before, conditions is just a list of expressions to evaluate after succesful match, result is the rhs of the rule and wildcard-positions maps the wildcards in the pattern to the positions in the expression.

With this the compile-rules function can be defined

(defn get-in-expression [expression key] (loop [loc (zip/seq-zip expression) [k & ks] key] (if k (let [new-loc (loop [k k loc (zip/down loc)] (if (> k 0) (recur (dec k) (zip/right loc)) loc))] (recur new-loc ks)) (first loc)))) (defn compile-step [g current-state rule-map] (let [possible-moves (doall (map last (:next (get g current-state)))) head-moves (doall (filter sequential? possible-moves)) current-level-moves (doall (remove sequential? possible-moves))] (if (empty? possible-moves) `(and (zip/end? ~'loc) ;;current-state was successfully matched. Now get the results for the ;;matched rules in current-stater (or ~@(for [[label & rest] (sort-by first (filter final? current-state)) :let [[conditions result omga-positions] (get rule-map label)]] `(let [~@(for [[name pos] omga-positions entry [name `(get-in-expression ~'expression ~pos)]] entry)] (and ~@(concat conditions [result])))))) `(or ~(if (empty? head-moves) 'false ;;have to test going a level deeper `(and (zip/branch? ~'loc) (let [~'head-loc (zip/next ~'loc)] (case (first ~'head-loc) ;;now all next steps have to be written down in a ;;case - the right hand side will be a recursive ;;call to create the code at the next level ;;the default of case is either nil or the level ;;from following a [? <number>] label in the graph ~@(concat (for [[s c] head-moves :when (not= omega s) entry [s `(and (= (dec (count (zip/children ~'loc))) ~c) (let [~'loc (zip/next ~'head-loc)] ~(compile-step g (get-next-node g current-state [s c]) rule-map)))]] entry) [(let [omega-downs (filter #(= (first %) omega) head-moves)] `(case (dec (count (zip/children ~'loc))) ~@(concat (for [[omga c] omega-downs entry [c `(let [~'loc (zip/next ~'head-loc)] ~(compile-step g (get-next-node g current-state[omega c]) rule-map))]] entry) ;;no further defaulting possible - fail '(nil))))]))))) (case (first ~'loc) ~@(concat (for [symbol current-level-moves :when (not= omega symbol) entry [symbol `(let [~'loc (next-without-down ~'loc)] ~(compile-step g (get-next-node g current-state symbol) rule-map))]] entry) [(if (some #{omega} current-level-moves) ;;we have a default case to fall back to `(let [~'loc (next-without-down ~'loc)] ~(compile-step g (get-next-node g current-state omega) rule-map)) 'nil)])))))) (defn compile-rules [rules] (let [res (for [[label pattern conditions result omga-positions] rules] [(initial-matching-item label pattern) [label [conditions result omga-positions]]]) initial-matching-set (close (map first res)) rule-map (into {} (map second res)) dag (create-dag initial-matching-set)] `(fn [~'expression] (let [~'loc (zip/seq-zip ~'expression)] ~(compile-step dag initial-matching-set rule-map)))))

- Tests with example rulesHere are two example rules: (f a a ?a a) => ?a (f (g a ?b) a ?b a) => ?b Encoded in the current low-level representation they become

`[[1 '([f 4] a a ? a) [] '?a '{?a [3]}] [2 '([f 4] [g 2] a ? a ? a) '[(= ?a ?b)] '?b '{?b [1 2] ?a [3]}]]`

(let [rules [[1 '([f 4] a a ? a) [] '?a '{?a [3]}] [2 '([f 4] [g 2] a ? a ? a) '[(= ?a ?b)] '?b '{?b [1 2] ?a [3]}]] f (eval (compile-rules rules))] (is (= 'c (f '(f (g a c) a c a)))) (is (not (f '(f (g a b) a c a)))) (is (= 'a (f '(f a a a a)))) (is (not (f '(f a a a b)))))

- Example codeThe compiled code for the two rules above looks like this:

(clojure.core/fn [expression] (clojure.core/let [loc (clojure.zip/seq-zip expression)] (clojure.core/or (clojure.core/and (clojure.zip/branch? loc) (clojure.core/let [head-loc (clojure.zip/next loc)] (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first head-loc) f (clojure.core/and (clojure.core/= (clojure.core/dec (clojure.core/count (clojure.zip/children loc))) 4) (clojure.core/let [loc (clojure.zip/next head-loc)] (clojure.core/or (clojure.core/and (clojure.zip/branch? loc) (clojure.core/let [head-loc (clojure.zip/next loc)] (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first head-loc) g (clojure.core/and (clojure.core/= (clojure.core/dec (clojure.core/count (clojure.zip/children loc))) 2) (clojure.core/let [loc (clojure.zip/next head-loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/and (clojure.zip/end? loc) (clojure.core/or (clojure.core/let [?b (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/get-in-expression expression [1 2]) ?a (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/get-in-expression expression [3])] (clojure.core/and (= ?a ?b) [?a ?b]))))) nil)))))) nil)))))) nil)))) (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/dec (clojure.core/count (clojure.zip/children loc))) nil)))) (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/or false (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) a (clojure.core/let [loc (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/next-without-down loc)] (clojure.core/and (clojure.zip/end? loc) (clojure.core/or (clojure.core/let [?a (optimal-left-to-right-pattern-matching-automata.core/get-in-expression expression [3])] (clojure.core/and ?a))))) nil)))))) nil))) nil)))) (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/dec (clojure.core/count (clojure.zip/children loc))) nil)))) (clojure.core/case (clojure.core/first loc) nil))))